## Thursday, 22 August 2013

### Greatest product of adjacent numbers in a grid

A note to any readers : This will be the last post for a month.

In the 2020 grid below, four numbers along a diagonal line have been marked in red.

08 02 22 97 38 15 00 40 00 75 04 05 07 78 52 12 50 77 91 08
49 49 99 40 17 81 18 57 60 87 17 40 98 43 69 48 04 56 62 00
81 49 31 73 55 79 14 29 93 71 40 67 53 88 30 03 49 13 36 65
52 70 95 23 04 60 11 42 69 24 68 56 01 32 56 71 37 02 36 91
22 31 16 71 51 67 63 89 41 92 36 54 22 40 40 28 66 33 13 80
24 47 32 60 99 03 45 02 44 75 33 53 78 36 84 20 35 17 12 50
32 98 81 28 64 23 67 10 26 38 40 67 59 54 70 66 18 38 64 70
67 26 20 68 02 62 12 20 95 63 94 39 63 08 40 91 66 49 94 21
24 55 58 05 66 73 99 26 97 17 78 78 96 83 14 88 34 89 63 72
21 36 23 09 75 00 76 44 20 45 35 14 00 61 33 97 34 31 33 95
78 17 53 28 22 75 31 67 15 94 03 80 04 62 16 14 09 53 56 92
16 39 05 42 96 35 31 47 55 58 88 24 00 17 54 24 36 29 85 57
86 56 00 48 35 71 89 07 05 44 44 37 44 60 21 58 51 54 17 58
19 80 81 68 05 94 47 69 28 73 92 13 86 52 17 77 04 89 55 40
04 52 08 83 97 35 99 16 07 97 57 32 16 26 26 79 33 27 98 66
88 36 68 87 57 62 20 72 03 46 33 67 46 55 12 32 63 93 53 69
04 42 16 73 38 25 39 11 24 94 72 18 08 46 29 32 40 62 76 36
20 69 36 41 72 30 23 88 34 62 99 69 82 67 59 85 74 04 36 16
20 73 35 29 78 31 90 01 74 31 49 71 48 86 81 16 23 57 05 54
01 70 54 71 83 51 54 69 16 92 33 48 61 43 52 01 89 19 67 48

The product of these numbers is 26 63 78 14 = 1788696.

What is the greatest product of four adjacent numbers in the same direction (up, down, left, right, or diagonally) in the 2020 grid?

The solution to this problem is quite interesting because it demonstrates the use of a macro. A macro is a construct available within as which permits the same sort of abstraction as a procedure|subroutine|function would in a high-level language.

Inside the macro, the parameter a is accessed via \a and the construct \@ expands out to a unique value each time the macro is invoked; this allows the use in labels which are distinct for each macro invocation.

```.syntax unified

.align 2

.section .rodata
buffer:
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 8, 2, 22, 97, 38, 15, 0, 40, 0, 75, 4, 5, 7, 78, 52, 12, 50, 77, 91, 8, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 49, 49, 99, 40, 17, 81, 18, 57, 60, 87, 17, 40, 98, 43, 69, 48, 4, 56, 62, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 81, 49, 31, 73, 55, 79, 14, 29, 93, 71, 40, 67, 53, 88, 30, 3, 49, 13, 36, 65, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 52, 70, 95, 23, 4, 60, 11, 42, 69, 24, 68, 56, 1, 32, 56, 71, 37, 2, 36, 91, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 22, 31, 16, 71, 51, 67, 63, 89, 41, 92, 36, 54, 22, 40, 40, 28, 66, 33, 13, 80, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 24, 47, 32, 60, 99, 3, 45, 2, 44, 75, 33, 53, 78, 36, 84, 20, 35, 17, 12, 50, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 32, 98, 81, 28, 64, 23, 67, 10, 26, 38, 40, 67, 59, 54, 70, 66, 18, 38, 64, 70, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 67, 26, 20, 68, 2, 62, 12, 20, 95, 63, 94, 39, 63, 8, 40, 91, 66, 49, 94, 21, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 24, 55, 58, 5, 66, 73, 99, 26, 97, 17, 78, 78, 96, 83, 14, 88, 34, 89, 63, 72, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 21, 36, 23, 9, 75, 0, 76, 44, 20, 45, 35, 14, 0, 61, 33, 97, 34, 31, 33, 95, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 78, 17, 53, 28, 22, 75, 31, 67, 15, 94, 3, 80, 4, 62, 16, 14, 9, 53, 56, 92, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 16, 39, 5, 42, 96, 35, 31, 47, 55, 58, 88, 24, 0, 17, 54, 24, 36, 29, 85, 57, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 86, 56, 0, 48, 35, 71, 89, 7, 5, 44, 44, 37, 44, 60, 21, 58, 51, 54, 17, 58, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 19, 80, 81, 68, 5, 94, 47, 69, 28, 73, 92, 13, 86, 52, 17, 77, 4, 89, 55, 40, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 4, 52, 8, 83, 97, 35, 99, 16, 7, 97, 57, 32, 16, 26, 26, 79, 33, 27, 98, 66, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 88, 36, 68, 87, 57, 62, 20, 72, 3, 46, 33, 67, 46, 55, 12, 32, 63, 93, 53, 69, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 4, 42, 16, 73, 38, 25, 39, 11, 24, 94, 72, 18, 8, 46, 29, 32, 40, 62, 76, 36, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 20, 69, 36, 41, 72, 30, 23, 88, 34, 62, 99, 69, 82, 67, 59, 85, 74, 4, 36, 16, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 20, 73, 35, 29, 78, 31, 90, 1, 74, 31, 49, 71, 48, 86, 81, 16, 23, 57, 5, 54, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 1, 70, 54, 71, 83, 51, 54, 69, 16, 92, 33, 48, 61, 43, 52, 1, 89, 19, 67, 48, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
.byte 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

resstring:
.asciz "%d\n"

.equ    ocolumns, 26
.equ    icolumns, 20
.equ    colstart, 23
.equ    border, 3
.equ    offset, 2
.equ    points, 4
.equ    north, -ocolumns
.equ    north_east, -ocolumns+1
.equ    east, 1
.equ    south_east, ocolumns+1
.equ    south, ocolumns
.equ    south_west, ocolumns - 1
.equ    west, -1
.equ    north_west, -ocolumns-1
.equ    point_set, 1

tmp      .req r2
pointv   .req r3
data_ptr .req r4
icount   .req r5
jcount   .req r6
kcount   .req r7
maxv     .req r8
dpstore  .req r9

.macro direction a
mov     data_ptr, dpstore
mov     kcount, points
mov     pointv, point_set
kloop\@:
ldrb    tmp, [data_ptr], \a
mul     pointv, pointv, tmp
subs    kcount, kcount, 1
bne     kloop\@
cmp     maxv, pointv
movlt   maxv, pointv     @ set maxv to max of maxv and pointv
.endm

.text
.align  2
.global main
.type   main, %function
main:
stmfd   sp!, {r4-r9, lr}
mov     icount, icolumns
iloop:
mov     jcount, icolumns
jloop:
mov     tmp, ocolumns
mul     tmp, tmp, data_ptr

ldr     data_ptr, =buffer
add     dpstore, data_ptr, tmp @ data[i][j]

direction north
direction north_east
direction east
direction south_east
direction south
direction south_west
direction west
direction north_west

subs    jcount, jcount, 1
bne     jloop

subs    icount, icount, 1
bne     iloop
printme:
mov     r1, maxv
ldr     r0, =resstring         @ store address of start of string to r0
bl      printf

mov     r0, 0
ldmfd   sp!, {r4-r9, pc}
mov     r7, 1                  @ set r7 to 1 - the syscall for exit
swi     0                      @ then invoke the syscall from linux
```